Sudan: Floods – Operation Update #3 – Emergency Appeal No: MDRSD028 – Sudan
To date, this emergency appeal, which requires 12,000,000 CHF, is approx. 43% funded. Additional financial contributions are required to enable the Sudanese Red Crescent Society, with the support of the IFRC and other Movement partners, to continue its preparedness efforts and support to provide humanitarian assistance, protection and livelihoods of those affected.
A. ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION
Description of the crisis
The heavy rains that started in late July 2020 intensified in August and September. This intensification came at a time when the Blue Nile from Ethiopia had swelled and overflowed. The combination of rains, flash floods and swollen rivers caused flooding, destruction of infrastructure, health facilities, homes, private and public buildings, farmland and affected nearly 900,000 people in 18 states of the country. The torrential rains and floods were the worst recorded in the country in 30 years. The most affected states were Blue Nile, Jezira, Khartoum, North Darfur, Red Sea, Sennar and West Darfur; and represented the majority of all those affected. Among the displaced families, many were hosted by neighbors of families, schools and public facilities or moved to temporary camps, some formal with services and others spontaneous near their residences.
Between July and October 2021, heavy rains and flooding affected more than 92,100 people in 12 states, according to the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC). Over 13,042 houses were damaged and over 5,000 houses were destroyed. Most of the families affected by the heavy rains and floods have been forced to shelter with relatives and move to government buildings.
The health situation in Sudan continued to deteriorate following the floods of 2020 and 2021, due to stagnant and contaminated water. Damage to clinics, hospitals and latrines has increased the risk of disease outbreaks in already weakened health systems. In the affected states, diarrhoea, malaria and skin infections are common causes of death among children, while malaria is a common cause of illness among adults.
In 2020, Sudan faced Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF), polio outbreak and increasing spread of Leishmaniasis (Kalazar) in Gedaref State. This is in addition to the annual cycles of epidemics of cholera, malaria, dengue and chikungunya which are endemic. Sudan continues to face the health and socio-economic consequences of COVID-19. As of February 1, 2022, 58,208 people have tested positive for COVID and 3,442 people have died from the disease. The case fatality rate of COVID-19 is among the highest in the world. COVID-The decline of the economy has severely affected the entire provision of basic services, including health services, with only 15% of essential medicines available in the country.
In many flooded places, access to drinking water has been limited. Water supply from boreholes was affected by the overflow of the river and latrines were destroyed, increasing the risk of water contamination and outbreak of water-borne diseases due to lack of latrines (resulting in open defecation) and faecal contamination of water in flooded latrines.
On October 25, 2021, a military coup took place in Sudan, resulting in the dissolution of the civilian government. Following the military coup, the scale of protests and demonstrations escalated and created a complete paralysis in the daily life of the services, and the weekly working days were reduced to four days a week, due closing bridges, blocking roads and shutting down internet services. . The closure of major seaports and highways has led to shortages of imported supplies, while exacerbating rising inflation rates, with increases of 30% for basic services such as electricity and water.
As a result, the overall needs in Sudan have continued to increase, with the Sudan Humanitarian Coordination Team reporting that the number of people in need is at a 10-year high, due to the political crisis, the economic situation and exacerbated by COVID-19, prolonged internal displacement and unprecedented flooding in 2020 – 2021. These combined factors have led to a decrease in the ability of households to meet and access basic needs and services. At least 1.3 million people are facing emergency levels of acute food insecurity and 5.8 million people are facing levels of acute food insecurity.